I'm not an actuary, I'm a pension analyst. I deal with various actuarial tables, factors, and definitions in my job, but I don't always understand them.

Is there an easy way (easy enough for a non-actuary to understand) to explain how joint and survivor optional forms are calculated when the normal annuity form is Life with 10 years of guaranteed payments?

I have tables to get factors from the N-upper 12 tables, but I don't know how to turn those factors into a conversion factor.